The terms Poland and Poles appear for the first time in medieval chronicles of the late 10th century. The land that the Poles, a West Slavic people, came to inhabit was covered by forests with small areas under cultivation where clans grouped themselves into numerous tribes. Russia was a prime beneficiary, having long shown that vast size was not incompatible with strong rule. In Poland the postwar coalition included a minority of members returned from wartime exile in London, but a majority were their rivals, backed by the U. It cannot be otherwise. Its activities precipitated a civil war, foreign intervention, and the First Partition of Poland.
It was a failed attempt to liberate the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland and the creation of the Targowica Confederation. The idea of reforming the Commonwealth gained traction starting from the midth century. A major opportunity for reform presented itself during the " Great Sejm " of — Poland's neighbors were preoccupied with wars and unable to intervene forcibly in Polish affairs. Russia and Austria were engaged in hostilities with the Ottoman Empire the Russo-Turkish War, — and the Austro-Turkish War, — ; the Russians also found themselves simultaneously fighting in the Russo-Swedish War, — With the wars between Turkey and Russia and Sweden and Russia having ended, Empress Catherine was furious over the adoption of the new constitution, which she believed threatened Russian influence in Poland. The Constitution was not adopted without dissent in the Commonwealth itself, either.
Why uneasy relations exist between Poles and Russians the article was written for the discussion about difficult Polish-Russian relationships European neighbors Poland and Russia have both a shared, and a strained, history together. Both nations are Slavic, they speak similar languages, and have lived in relatively the same way throughout history. Over various periods of history, both Poland and Russia have conquered each other's territory. Despite all the similarities, however, there are sharp contrasts. Poles are Roman Catholics, and therefore use the Latin alphabet in their script, as well as being a very Western-oriented country; Russians are of the Orthodox religion, which has a centuries-long hatred of Roman Catholicism, and therefore write using the Cyrillic alphabet.
Poland prepares itself to be again at the forefront of Western civilization. What we see happening in Ukraine today fits with his thesis. Friedman also predicted that during this century Poland would become the major ally of the U. Nothing can stir up Russian nationalists as much as trumpeting Polish involvement in a matter of Russian interests. If Putin has his way in Ukraine what will be the impact on Poland?